Adolescents

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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT). A Guide to Substance Abuse Services for Primary Care Clinicians. Rockville, Md: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2008. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64827/ Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
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Description: 
This is a brief list of risk and protective factors to look for when evaluating patients for substance abuse.
Source: 
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
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CRAFFT: Brief Screening Tool for Adolescents

Description: 
THE CRAFFT is a screening instrument used to detect alcohol and other drug abuse.

CRAFFT

1. Have you ever ridden in a Car driven by someone
(including yourself) who was high or had been using
alcohol or drugs?

2. Do you ever use alcohol or drugs to Relax, feel better
about yourself, or fit in?

3. Do you ever use alcohol or drugs while you are by
yourself Alone?

4. Do you ever Forget things you did while using alcohol
or drugs?

5. Do your Family or Friends ever tell you that you should
cut down on your drinking or drug use?

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Description: 
This clinical guidance from the PCSS provides facts and tips about treating adolescent patients with buprenorphine.
Source: 
PCSS-Buprenorphine
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Special Problems of Adolescents with Opioid Use Disorders

Description: 
Details the roots of adolescent opioid use disorders and additional needs of this population.

Roots of Adolescent Opioid Use and Abuse

Addressing the roots of opioid use disorders is vital to successful treatment of opioid dependence, since failure to do so will reduce the chance of successful treatment and increase the risk of relapse (Hird et al., 1997). While most primary care physicians are neither prepared nor trained to troubleshoot these issues, they are in a position to refer adolescent patients to services that are (SAMHSA, 1999).

The following have been identified as important risk factors for adolescent opioid use disorders:

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Alternative Treatments for Adolescents

Description: 
Describes alternatives to buprenorphine treatment for adolescents, both medication and medication-free options.

Alternate Treatments for Adolescents

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Description: 
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides this website so that physicians can improve the deliver and financing of prevention, treatment and recovery support services to patients.
Source: 
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
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Risk Factors: How can health professionals mitigate these risks?

Description: 
This is a brief list of risk factors to look for when evaluating patients for substance abuse. There is also guidance on how health professionals can mitigate adolescent risk for substance abuse.

Risk can foreshadow potential substance abuse; thus, a provider noticing such factors is able to practice prevention. There are a variety of risk factors that have been linked to drug experimentation, abuse, or dependence by adolescents:

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Description: 
This study largely focused on children of parents who abuse alcohol but also contains some information on children of drug users.
Source: 
Johnson JL, Leff M.Children of substance abusers: overview of research findings. Pediatrics. 1999;103(suppl 5, pt 2):1085-1099.
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