Buprenorphine Training Program v2.0 (2012 Update)

Authors

As an ACCME accredited provider of continuing medical education, Clinical Tools, Inc. complies with the Standards for Commercial Support issued by the ACCME and requires disclosure of and resolution of any conflicts of interest for those in control of content.
Meghan Coulehan, MPH (Research Project Director, Clinical Tools, Inc.)Ms. Coulehan has contributed to nearly all of Clinical Tools' projects since she started working at the company in 1996. She has served as director of the buprenorphine education team since 2000 when the company received its first NIDA grant to develop a web-based opioid dependence training program. Since then she has overseen development, evaluation, and distribution of the DATA-2000 buprenorphine training program and clinical practice tools on BupPractice.com. She has also worked on dozens of other CME courses developed by Clinical Tools, on topics including alcohol abuse and treatment, tobacco cessation, pain and addiction, depression, and genetic counseling and testing. Ms. Coulehan also has extensive experience working on patient health education projects; she is currently the principal investigator on a project to develop an education and support website for dementia caregivers (DementiaCareCentral.com).
Disclosure: Has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
T Bradley Tanner, MD (President, Clinical Tools, Inc.)T. Bradley Tanner, MD is president of Clinical Tools and responsible for the vision of the company. He has received funding via grants and contracts from NIDA, NIAAA, NIMH, NCI, AHRQ, CDC, the Dept of Defense, and NASA to develop medical and health education projects. Dr. Tanner served as principal investigator on 2 NIDA grants to develop the DATA-2000 qualifying buprenorphine training program and clinical practice tools on BupPractice.com. He also has a strong background in technology and oversees development and delivery of all Clinical Tools websites. Dr. Tanner is also a board-certified psychiatrist with experience in inpatient, outpatient, and emergency health settings. He currently treats patients and educates medical students and residents via his role a Clinical Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill.
Disclosure: Has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
Karen Rossie, DDS PhD (Research Scientist, Clinical Tools, Inc. )Karen Rossie, DDS, PhD, directs projects at Clincal Tools. She majored in biology at Cleveland State University and studied dentistry at Case Western Reserve University followed by completing a Masters in pathology at Ohio State University. She taught and practiced oral pathology and oral medicine for 12 years at the University of Pittsburgh, doing research in autoimmune disease, transplantation, cancer, salivary gland disease, and diabetes. An interest in the psychological aspects of disease led her to obtain a PhD in psychology at the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology in Palo Alto where she now teaches psychology part time in a distance learning program. She has used this diverse background to lead or contribute to CTI projects related to tobacco cessation, opioid abuse treatment, anxiety, dementia care, alcohol use disorder, screening and brief interventions for substance abuse, obesity, and pain and addiction.
Disclosure: Has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Reviewers

Colleen T LaBelle, BSN (Nurse Program Manager at Boston Medical Center, Program Director State Technical Assistance Treatment Expansion of Buprenorphine for the Bureau of Substance Abuse Services)Ms. Labelle is the Nurse Program Manager at Boston Medical Center, and Program Director State Technical Assistance Treatment Expansion of Buprenorphine for the Bureau of Substance Abuse Services in MA. She manages the largest buprenorphine practice in the State of Massachusetts, and 14 community health center models. In addition, she has served as a faculty member, National Advisory Committee for Buprenorphine member, and Liaison to the State of Massachusetts providing trainings and technical support to community providers on buprenorphine. Ms. Labelle has been a part of the SAMHSA Summit on Buprenorphine. participated in professional editing of TAP 30 Technical Assistance Publication for Nurses with SAMHSA, 2009. Co-author): Five Year Experience with Collaborative Care of Opioid Addicted Patients using Buprenorphine in Primary Care, published Archives of Internal Medicine.
Disclosure: Has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
Edwin Salsitz, MD (Medical Director, Office-Based Opioid Therapy Program, Beth Israel Medical Center)Dr. Salsitz is currently the Medical Director of a large office-based opioid treatment center at Beth Israel Medical Center. He also treats substance abuse patients at a private practice and is an ASAM-certified addiction medicine specialist. He has worked with opioid-dependent patients for over 20 years at a novel office-based methadone maintenance clinic. Dr. Salsitz is involved with buprenorphine education and serves as a Course Director for ASAM buprenorphine trainings and as a mentor in the Physician Clinical Support Services program.
Disclosure: Speaker for Reckitt Benckiser, Pfizer, Forest Labs, and Cephalon.
Judith Martin, MD (President of California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) and Medical Director, BAART Turk Street Clinic)Dr. Martin's residency specialty is family practice and she has worked in addiction medicine since 1986, and is certified in addiction medicine by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM). She works with heroin-addicted patients and their families in East Oakland, as the Medical Director of The 14th Street Clinic. She also serves as the Medical Director for the East Bay Community Recovery Project, a multi-service agency that includes a residential program for addicted women and their children, Project Pride. Dr. Martin has published several papers related to methadone maintenance and she has taught in the Division of Family Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. Currently, Dr. Martin is the President of the California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM), has served on CSAM's executive council, and she chairs their Committee for the Treatment of Opiate Dependence. Since 2001, she has been involved in efforts to train physicians in opiate dependence and the use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opiate addiction. She is currently co-chair of the American Society of Addiction Medicine's Buprenorphine Training Subcommittee.
Disclosure: Has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
Steve Applegate, MEd MEdMr. Applegate has experience in substance use counseling, state initiatives impacting substance use, and professional training. His prior positions include director of higher education and instructional design at the North Carolina Governor's Institute on Alcohol and Substance Abuse, project director of the North Carolina Initiative of the Mid-Atlantic Addiction Technology Transfer Center, and program director of the Addiction Sciences Center (an outpatient substance abuse treatment center at the University of Virginia Health Sciences Center). Mr. Applegate works as an on-site consultant and travels to the Clinical Tools (CTI) office on a monthly basis from his office in Richmond, VA. Mr. Applegate helped design the CTI Instructional Manual and works to continue to revise it as we expand our Instructional Design methodology. Mr. Applegate has extensive experience with online education and training, especially in the area of substance abuse. He often pushes the envelope of technology and brainstorms with Clinical Tools how we can utilize new technology within our products. He helped guide development of the curriculum plan and assessments in Phase I of the current project.
Disclosure: Has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Audience and Accreditation

Audience

Physicians

Type: AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™Estimated Time: 9 hour(s)Release Date: 10/1/11Expiration Date: 10/23/13

Credit Statement for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™: Clinical Tools, Inc. designates this enduring material for a maximum of 9 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
  • A letter of completion for up to 9 hour(s) is available for non-physicians.

A score of 70% on the post-test is required to complete the program.

Overview

Goal: To provide training to physicians that meets the requirement of DATA 2000, in order to increase the number of physicians who are knowledgeable about and qualified to prescribe buprenorhpine to their opioid-dependent patients.
Professional Practice GapsRead More

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) estimated that in 2012 there were 467,000 people who abused or were dependent on heroin; the prevalence of past month non-medical use of pain relievers was 1.9% (SAMSHA, 2013). In fact, these figures probably vastly underestimate the true prevalence of opioid use disorders in the United States (SAMHSA, 2005). Further, only a small fraction of these users have received treatment for an opioid use disorder (SAMHSA, 2005).

Buprenorphine is a safe and effective treatment for opioid dependence that offers patients a more widely available, accessible, convenient treatment option as compared to traditional opioid treatment programs (OTP) (SAMHSA, 2001; Johnson et al., 2003; SAMHSA, 2004). The Drug Addiction Treatment Act (DATA) of 2000 -- an amendment to the Controlled Substances Act -- allows physicians who are not part of an OTP to prescribe buprenorphine. However, the law requires physicians to complete an 8-hour buprenorphine training conducted by an approved organization in order to prescribe it.

This buprenorphine training program prepares physicians to prescribe buprenorphine safely and effectively to address needs of the millions of Americans with opioid use problems. In addition, the program has been developed to meet the DATA 2000 training guidelines as defined in Public Law 106-310-106th Congress and is endorsed by the American Society of Addiction Medicine, one of the approved training organizations named in DATA 2000. The program content is based upon SAMHSA’s 2004 publication Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) #40: Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opioid Addiction. The courses are regularly reviewed and updated by ASAM members who are experts in the field of addiction medicine and buprenorphine treatment.

References:

Johnson RE, Strain EC, Amass L. Buprenorphine: how to use it right. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003; 70(suppl 2): S59-S77. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12738351.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Use of Buprenorphine in the Pharmacologic Management of Opioid Dependence: A Curriculum for Physicians. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2001. Available at: http://www.buprenorphine.samhsa.gov/Buprenorphine_Curriculum.pdf.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opioid Addiction. Rockville, Md: Center For Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol Series, No. 40, USDHHS Publication (SMA) 04-3939. 2004b. Available at: http://buprenorphine.samhsa.gov/Bup_Guidelines.pdf.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Overview of Findings From the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Rockville, Md: Office of Applied Studies. 2005. Available at: http://oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k4NSDUH/2k4Overview/2k4Overview.pdf.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. Rockville, Md: Office of Applied Studies. 2013. Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/NationalFindings/NSDUHresults2012.htm#ch2


This program is designed to change: Read More Competence, Performance, Patient Outcome.

Educational Objectives

After completing this program participants will be able to:
  • Expand your practice to comply with the regulations and requirements of office based buprenorphine treatment

  • Relate buprenorphine's pharmacological properties to its drug effects and understand the physiological effects of opioids and opioid treatments on patients

  • Identify, assess, and diagnose opioid use and dependence in your patients

  • Utilize medical and substance abuse history information to assess your patients in terms of suitability of treatment with buprenorphine

  • Provide effective and successful treatment to your patients throughout the phases of buprenorphine treatment: induction, maintenance, and discontinuation, and deal with complications that arise

  • Assess and adapt treatment guidelines to best treat your patients from specific patient populations, including those with psychiatric comorbidities, adolescents, the elderly, pregnant women, methadone transfers, and patients with pain

  • Prescribe, refer, or implement appropriate psychosocial therapies for treating opioid dependence

Program Activity Syllabus

Practice Gap References
Johnson RE, Strain EC, Amass L. Buprenorphine: how to use it right. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003; 70(suppl 2): S59-S77. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12738351 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
SAMHSA. Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-46, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4795. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2013. Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/NationalFindings/NSDUHresults2012.htm Accessed on: 2014-07-30.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opioid Addiction. Rockville, Md: Center For Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol Series, No. 40, USDHHS Publication (SMA) 04-3939. 2004b. Available at: http://buprenorphine.samhsa.gov/Bup_Guidelines.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Use of Buprenorphine in the Pharmacologic Management of Opioid Dependence: A Curriculum for Physicians. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2001. Available at: http://www.buprenorphine.samhsa.gov/Buprenorphine_Curriculum.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Use of buprenorphine in the pharmacologic management of opioid dependence: a curriculum for physicians. CSAT Buprenorphine Information Center. 2001a. Available at: http://www.buprenorphine.samhsa.gov/Buprenorphine_Curriculum.pdf Accessed on: 2003-04-29.

Review Dates

Content Review:
Sat, 12/15/2012
Editorial Review:
Sat, 12/15/2012

Participation Requirements

Read More Program Credit: Obtaining credit for participation in this program requires that you complete the pre-assessments, work through the modules (including all in-module interactive activities), complete the post-assessments with a 70% score on the post-test, and then request credit. At the end of the program, you will be instructed on how to print out a certificate for your records.
Time Requirement: Keep track of the amount of time it takes you to complete this program. You will be required to spend a set amount of time in order to claim credit. You should claim credit only for the time actually spent in the activity.
Technical Requirements: To participate in this program, you will need a computer, an Internet connection, and a Web browser. This program requires Chrome, Firefox, and IE7 or higher.

Funding

Initial development of this program was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (#R44-DA12066).
Educational Activity References
Adler M, Barthwell AG, Brown, LS Jr. The treatment of drug addiction: a review. In: Graham AW, Schultz TK, Mayo-Smith MF, Ries RK, Wilford BB, eds. Principles of Addiction Medicine, Third Edition. Chevy Chase, Md: American Society of Addiction Medicine. 2003. Available at: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/principles-of-addiction-medicine-american-society-american-society-of-addiction-medicine/1015772450?ean=9781880425084 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Al-Tayyib A, Rice E, Rhoades H, Riggs P. Association between prescription drug misuse and injection among runaway homeless youth. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013; 134: 406-9. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24300900 Accessed on: 2014-09-26.
Alford D, LaBelle C, Richardson J, O'Connell J, Hohl C, Cheng D, Samet J. Treating Homeless Opioid Dependent Patients with Buprenorphine in an Office-Based Setting. Society of General Internal Medicine. 2007; 22: 171-176. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1824722/ Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Alford DP, Compton P, Samet JH. Acute Pain Management for Patients Receiving Maintenance Methadone or Buprenorphine Therapy. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2006; 144(2): 127-134. Available at: http://www.annals.org/content/144/2/127.full.pdf
Alford DP, Labelle CT, Kretsch N, Bergeron A, Winter M, Botticelli M, Samet JH. Collaborative care of opioid-addicted patients in primary care using buprenorphine: five-year experience. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2011; 171(5): 425-31. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3059544/ Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Amass L, Ling W, Freese TE, et al. Bringing buprenorphine-naloxone detoxification to community treatment providers: the NIDA Clinical Trials Network field experience. Am J Addict. 2004; 13 Suppl 1: S42-66. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1255908/ Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Alcohol use by youth and adolescents: a pediatric concern. Pediatrics. 2010; 125(5): 1078-1087. Available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/125/5/1078.abstract Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.. 2013; 5th ed.: . Available at: http://www.dsm5.org Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed, Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. 2000. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/dp/0890420254 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM). Drug Testing As A Component Of Addiction Treatment and Monitoring Programs and in Other Clinical Settings. ASAM.org. 2010. Available at: http://www.asam.org/advocacy/find-a-policy-statement/view-policy-statement/public-policy-statements/2011/12/15/drug-testing-as-a-component-of-addiction-treatment-and-monitoring-programs-and-in-other-clinical-settings Accessed on: 2013-12-31.
Arfken CL, Johanson CE, di Menza S, Schuster CR. Expanding treatment capacity for opioid dependence with office-based treatment with buprenorphine: National surveys of physicians. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2010; 39(2): 96-104. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20598829 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO). Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: How States Can Help Advance the Knowledge Base for Primary Prevention and Best Practices of Care. . 2014. Available at: http://www.astho.org/Prevention/NAS-Neonatal-Abstinence-Report/ Accessed on: 2014-09-17.
Babor T, Higgins-Biddle JC, Saunders JB, Monteiro MG. AUDIT: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: guidelines for use in primary care. World Health Organization: Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence. Second Edition. 2001. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2001/WHO_MSD_MSB_01.6a.pdf Accessed on: 2014-09-21.
Baca CT, Yahne CE. Smoking cessation during substance abuse treatment: what you need to know. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2009; 36(2): 205-19. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18715746 Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
Bell J, Zador D. A risk-benefit analysis of methadone maintenance treatment. Drug Saf. 2000; 22(3): 179-190. Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165%2F00002018-200022030-00002 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Berson A, Fau D, Fornacciari R, Degove-Goddard P, Sutton A, Descatoire V, Haouzi D, Lettéron P, Moreau A, Feldmann G. Pessayre D, Mechanisms for experimental buprenorphine hepatotoxicity: major role of mitochondrial dysfunction versus metabolic activation. J Hepatol. 2001a; 34(2): 261-269. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11281555 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Blow FC. Special issues in treatment: old adults. In: Graham AW, Schultz TK, May-Smith MF, Ries RK, Wilford BB, eds. Principles of Addiction Medicine, 3rd ed. Chevy Chase, Md: American Society of Addiction Medicine. 2003. Available at: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/principles-of-addiction-medicine-american-society-american-society-of-addiction-medicine/1015772450?ean=9781880425084 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Borg L, Kreek MJ. The pharmacology of opioids. In: Graham AW, Schultz TK, Mayo-Smith MF, Ries RK, Wilford BB, eds. Principles of Addiction Medicine. 3rd ed. Chevy Chase, Md: American Society of Addiction Medicine. 2003; 3: . Available at: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/principles-of-addiction-medicine-american-society-american-society-of-addiction-medicine/1015772450?ean=9781880425084 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Bottros MM, Christo PJ. Urine Drug Testing: An Underused Tool. Pain Management Today® eNewsletter series. 2011; 1(7): . Available at: http://newsletter.qhc.com/JFP/JFP_pain022311.htm Accessed on: 2014-01-02.
Brady KT, Myrick H, Sonne S. Comorbid addiction and affective disorders. In: Graham AW, Schultz TK, eds. Principles of Addiction Medicine, Second Edition. Chevy Chase, Md: American Society of Addiction Medicine. 1998. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2851027/ Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Brands B, Blake J, Sproule B, et al. Prescription opioid abuse in patients presenting for methadone maintenance treatment. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004; 73(2): 199-207. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14725960 Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
Breslau N, Davis GC, Schultz LR. Posttraumatic stress disorder and the incidence of nicotine, alcohol, and other drug disorders in persons who have experienced trauma. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003; 60(3): 289-294. Available at: http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=207281 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Brown RL, Leonard T, Saunders LA, Papasouliotis O. The prevalence and detection of substance use disorder among inpatients ages 18 to 49: an opportunity for prevention. Preventive Medicine. 1998; 27: 101-110. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9465360 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Brushwood DB. Electronic prescription monitoring programs: a data-reporting tool designed to prevent drug diversion. Emerging Solutions in Pain Knowledge Series III. MediCom Worldwide, Inc . 2007.
Casadonte PP. PCSS Guidance: Buprenorphine Induction. Physician Clinical Support System Website. 2009. Available at: http://pcssmat.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/PCSS-MATGuidanceBuprenorphineInduction.Casadonte.pdf Accessed on: 2014-02-18.
CDC. Prescription Drug Overdoses: An American Epidemic. www.cdc.gov. 2011. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/cdcgrandrounds/ Accessed on: 2014-05-23.
Chiang CN, Hawks RL. Pharmacokinetics of the combination tablet of buprenorphine and naloxone. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003; 70(suppl 2): S39-S47.
Chou R, Fanciullo GJ, Fine PG, Adler JA, Ballantyne JC, Davies P, Donovan MI, Fishbain DA, Foley KM, Fudin J, Gilson AM, Kelter A, Mauskop A, O'Connor PG, Passik SD, Pasternak GW, Portenoy RK, Rich BA, Roberts RG, Todd KH, Miaskowski C, American Pain Society-American Academy of Pain Medicine Opioids Guidelines Panel. Clinical guidelines for the use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain. J of Pain. 2009; 10(2): 113-130. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19187889 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Christo PJ, Manchikanti L, Ruan X, Bottros M, Hansen H, Solanki DR, Jordan AE, Colson J. Urine Drug Testing In Chronic Pain. Pain Physician . 2011; 14: 123-143. Available at: http://www.painphysicianjournal.com/2011/march/2011;14;123-143.pdf Accessed on: 2014-01-02.
Chychula NM, Sciamanna C. Help substance abusers attain and sustain abstinence. Nurse Pract. 2002; 27(11): 30-47. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12444364 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Cicero JT, Dart RC, Inciardi JA, Woody GE, Schnoll S, Munoz A. The Development of a Comprehensive Risk-Management Program for Prescription Opioid Analgesics: Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS). Pain Medicine. 2007; 8(2): 157-169. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17305687 Accessed on: 2014-02-18.
Cicero TJ, Surratt HL, Inciardi J. Use and misuse of buprenorphine in the management of opioid addiction. J Opioid Manag. 2007; 3(6): 302-8. Available at: http://www.naddi.org/aws/NADDI/asset_manager/get_file/2740 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Clark HW, Brooks MK. Ethical issues in addiction treatment. In: Graham AW, Schultz TK, Mayo-Smith MF, Ries RK, Wilford BB, eds. Principles of Addiction Medicine, Third Edition. Chevy Chase, Md: American Society of Addiction Medicine. 2003. Available at: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/principles-of-addiction-medicine-american-society-american-society-of-addiction-medicine/1015772450?ean=9781880425084 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Clark HW, Masson CL, Delucchi KL, Hall SM, Sees KL. Violent traumatic events and drug abuse severity. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2001; 20(2): 121-127. Available at: http://www.journalofsubstanceabusetreatment.com/article/S0740-5472(00)00156-2/abstract Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Colameco S, Armando J, Trotz C. Opiate dependence treatment with buprenorphine: one year's experience in a family practice residency setting. J Addict Dis. 2005; 24(2): 25-32. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15784521 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Colliver JD, Compton WM, Gfroerer JC, Condon T. Projecting Drug Use Among Aging Baby Boomers in 2020. Annals of Epidemiology. 2006; 16(4): 257-265. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16275134 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Comer VG, Annitto WJ. Buprenorphine: A Safe Method for Detoxifying Pregnant Heroin Addicts and Their Unborn. American Journal on Addictions. 2004; 13(3): 317-8. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15370952 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Compton WM, Volkow ND. Major increases in opioid analgesic abuse in the United States: Concerns and strategies. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2006; 81(2): 103-107. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16023304 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Conigliaro J, Reyes CD, Parran TV, Schulz JE. Principles of screening and early intervention. In: Graham AW, Schultz TK, Mayo-Smith MF, Ries RK, Wilford BB, eds. Principles of Addiction Medicine, Third Edition. Chevy Chase, Md: American Society of Addiction Medicine. 2003. Available at: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/principles-of-addiction-medicine-american-society-american-society-of-addiction-medicine/1015772450?ean=9781880425084 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Cooper CL. Obstacles to Successful HCV Treatment in Substance Addicted Patients. Journal of Addictive Diseases. 2008; 27(2): 61-68. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J069v27n02_07?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed#.Ula6nZlDvmc Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Czerkes M. Buprenorphine Versus Methadone Treatment for Opiate Addiction in Pregnancy: An Evaluation of Neonatal Outcomes. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Annual Clinical Meeting. 2010.
Darke S, Ross J. Suicide among heroin users: rates, risk factors and methods. Addiction. 2002; 97(11): 1383-1394.
Dart R. Evaluation of ADFs Using RADARS System Data. RADARS System. 2011. Available at: http://www.thblack.com/links/RSD/RADARS(R)%20System_2011%20Annual%20Meeting%20Summary.pdf Accessed on: 2013-04-30.
Dart RC. Opioid Abuse, Misuse, and Diversion: Strategies for Prevention. Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS). American Academy of Pain Medicine Meeting. 2009. Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Dasgupta N. RADARS System Subutex & Suboxone: How Much is Prescribed vs. Abuse/Diversion Reports. SAMHSA Meeting on Buprenorphine. 2010. Available at: http://buprenorphine.samhsa.gov/presentations/Dasgupta.pdf Accessed on: 2013-04-30.
de Castro S, Sabaté E. Adherence to heroin dependence therapies and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infection rates among drug abusers. Clin Infect Dis. 2003; 37(suppl 5): S464-S467. Available at: http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/Supplement_5/S464.long Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
De Vries TJ, Shippenberg TS. Neural systems underlying opiate addiction. J Neurosci. 2002; 22(9): 3321-3325. Available at: http://www.jneurosci.org/content/22/9/3321.long Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Mandatory guidelines for federal workplace drug testing programs. Federal Register. 2008; 73(228): 71858-71907. Available at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2008-11-25/html/E8-26726.htm Accessed on: 2014-01-02.
Donaher PA, Welsh C. Managing opioid addiction with buprenorphine. American Family Physician. 2006; 73(9): 1573-8. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0501/p1573.html Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Highlights of the 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) Findings on Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits. The Dawn Report. 2013; 127: . Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k13/DAWN127/sr127-DAWN-highlights.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Drug Enforcement Administration, Justice. § 1301.75 Physical security controls for practitioners. DEA. 2005. Available at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title21-vol9/pdf/CFR-2009-title21-vol9-sec1301-76.pdf Accessed on: 2010-06-10.
Drug Enforcement Administration. Code of Federal Regulations: Section 1304.03 Maintenance of records and inventories. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Office of Diversion Control. 2000. Available at: http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/cfr/1304/1304_04.htm Accessed on: 2011-07-03.
Drug Enforcement Administration. State Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs. U.S. Department of Justice. 2009. Available at: http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/faq/rx_monitor.htm
Drug Enforcement Administration. State Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs. U.S. Department of Justice. 2011. Available at: http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/faq/rx_monitor.htm
Dunn KM, Saunders KW, Rutter CM, et. al. Opioid prescriptions for chronic pain and overdose: a cohort study. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2010; 152(2): 85-92. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000551/ Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
E Papastavrou , A Farmakas, G Karayiannis, E Kotrotsiou. Co morbidity of Post-Traumatic-Stress Disorders and Substance Use Disorder. Health Science Journal. 2011; 5(2): 107-17. Available at: http://www.hsj.gr/volume5/issue2/524.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Egan JE, Casadonte P, Gartenmann T, Martin J, McCance-Katz EF, Netherland J, Renner JA, Weiss L, Saxon AJ, Fiellin DA. The Physician Clinical Support System-Buprenorphine (PCSS-B): a novel project to expand/improve buprenorphine treatment. J Gen Intern Med. 2010; 25(9): 936-41. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917666/ Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
FDA. Medication Guide: Butrans™ CIII (buprenorphine) Transdermal System. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2010. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/UCM219146.pdf
Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States. Model policy for the use of controlled substances for the treatment of pain. Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States, Inc. 2013 updated, 2004. Available at: http://library.fsmb.org/pdf/2004_grpol_Controlled_Substances.pdf
Fiellin D. Treatment of acute pain in patients receiving buprenorphine/naloxone. Physician Clinical Support System (PCSS) Clinical Guidance. 2005. Available at: http://www.pcssbuprenorphine.org/pcss/documents2/PCSS_AcutePain_052307.pdf
Fiellin DA, O'Connor PG. New federal initiatives to enhance the medical treatment of opioid dependence. Ann Intern Med. 2002; 137(8): 688-692. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12379070 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Fiellin DA, Pantalon MV, Pakes JP, O'Connor PG, Chawarski M, Schottenfeld RS. Treatment of heroin dependence with buprenorphine in primary care. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2002; 28(2): 231-241. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12014814 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Fiellin DA, Reid MC, O'Connor PG. Screening for alcohol problems in primary care: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160(13): 1977-1989. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10888972 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Fiellin DA, Rosenheck RA, Kosten TR. Office-based treatment for opioid dependence: reaching new patient populations. Am J Psychiatry. 2001; 158(8): 1200-1204. Available at: http://psychiatryonline.org/data/Journals/AJP/3727/1200.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Fishbain DA, Cole B, Lewis J, Rosomoff HL, Rosomoff RS. What percentage of chronic nonmalignant pain patients exposed to chronic opioid analgesic therapy develop abuse/addiction and/or aberrant drug-related behaviors? A structured evidence-based review. Pain Medicine. 2008; 9(4): 444-459. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18489635 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Fishman MJ, Wu LT, Woody GE. Buprenorphine for Prescription Opioid Addiction in a Patient With Depression and Alcohol Dependence . Am J Psychiatry. 2011; 168(7): 675–679. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3178807/ Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Buprenorphine Drug Label. NDA 20-732, NDA 20-733. 2010. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/UCM191529.pdf
Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Buprenorphine-containing Transmucosal products for Opioid Dependence (BTOD) Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS). Food and Drug Anministration. 2013. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/UCM340914.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Medications Guide. btodrems.com. 2013. Available at: https://www.btodrems.com/SitePages/MedicationGuides.aspx Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Physician Information: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions. NDA 20-732. 2010. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/UCM191532.pdf Accessed on: 2011-07-07.
FSMB. Model Policy on DATA 2000 and Treatment of Opioid Addiction in the Medical Office. FSMB Website http://www.fsmb.org. 2013. Available at: http://library.fsmb.org/pdf/2013_model_policy_treatment_opioid_addiction.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-11.
Gallagher C. What Waivered Physicans Need to Understand About DEA Requirements. PCSS-B Web Seminar. 2010. Available at: http://www.psych.org/Share/QIPS/Addictions/DEA-powerpoint-slides.aspx Accessed on: 2011-04-11.
Gitlow S. Substance Use Disorders: A Practical Guide. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2001. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/dp/0781769981/ref=cm_sw_su_dp Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Glasper A, Reed LJ, de Wet CJ, Gossop M, Bearn J. Induction of patients with moderately severe methadone dependence onto buprenorphine. Addiction Biology. 2005; 10(2): 149-155. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16191667 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Gourlay D, Heit H, Caplan Y. Urine Drug Testing in Primary Care: Dispelling the Myths & Designing Strategies. California Academy of Family Physicians. 2002. Available at: http://www.alaskaafp.org/udt.pdf Accessed on: 2005-03-15.
Gourlay D. Urine Drug Testing in Chronic Pain: A Patient Centered Approach (AMA) [webinar]. American Medical Association. 2013. Available at: http://www.pcss-o.org/archived-webinar-58 Accessed on: 2013-12-31.
Gourlay DL, Heit HA, Caplan YH. Urine Drug Testing in Clinical Practice: The Art and Science of Patient Care. . 2012; 5: . Available at: http://eo2.commpartners.com/users/ama/downloads/udt5_Copy.pdf Accessed on: 2014-01-02.
Greenwald MK, Schuh KJ, Hopper JA, Schuster CR, Johanson CE. Effects of buprenorphine sublingual tablet maintenance on opioid drug-seeking behavior by humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002; 160(4): 344-352. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11919661 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Grella CE, Etheridge RM, Joshi V, Anglin MD. Delivery of HIV risk-reduction services in drug treatment programs. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2000; 19: 229-237. Available at: http://www.journalofsubstanceabusetreatment.com/article/S0740-5472(00)00102-1/abstract Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Guo AY, Ma JD, Best BM, Atayee RS. Urine specimen detection of concurrent nonprescribed medicinal and illicit drug use in patients prescribed buprenorphine. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 2013; 37(9): 636-41. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24080973 Accessed on: 2014-01-06.
Gyarmathy VA, Neaigus A, Miller M, Friedman SR, Des Jarlais DC. Risk correlates of prevalent HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections among noninjecting heroin users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002; 30(4): 448-456. Available at: http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=1525-4135&volume=30&issue=4&spage=448 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Hahesy AL, Wilens TE, Biederman J, Van Patten SL, Spencer T. Temporal association between childhood psychopathology and substance use disorders: findings from a sample of adults with opioid or alcohol dependency. Psychiatry Res. 2002; 109(3): 245-253. Available at: http://www.psy-journal.com/article/S0165-1781(02)00015-X/abstract Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Hahn JA, Page-Shafer K, Lum PJ, Ochoa K, Moss AR. Hepatitis C virus infection and needle exchange use among young injection drug users in San Francisco. Hepatology. 2001; 34(1): 180-187. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11431749 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Hasin D, Liu X-H, Nunes E, McCloud S, Samet S, Endicott J. Effects of major depression on remission and relapse of substance dependence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002; 59: 375–380. Available at: http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=206176 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Heit HA, Gourlay DL. Urine drug testing in pain medicine. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2004; 27: 260-267. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15010104 Accessed on: 2014-01-02.
Henry JA. Metabolic consequences of drug misuse. Br J Anaesth. 2000; 85(1): 136-142. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10928002 Accessed on: 2014-02-18.
Herve S, Riachi G, Noblet C, Guillement N, Tanasescu S, Odile G, Thuillez C, Tranvouez J, Ducrotte P, Lerebours E. Acute hepatitis due to buprenorphine administration. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2004; 16(10): 1033-1037. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15371928 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Hopfer CJ, Khuri E, Crowley TJ, Hooks S. Adolescent heroin use: a review of the descriptive and treatment literature. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2002; 23(3): 231-237. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12392810 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Huestis MA. High-dose buprenorphine in humans. In: Kintz P, Marquet P, eds. Buprenorphine Therapy of Opiate Addiction. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, Inc. 2002. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/dp/158829031X
Ingersoll KS, Wagner CC, Gharib S. Motivational Groups for Community Substance Abuse Programs. Richmond, Va; Mid-Atlantic Addiction Technology Transfer Center, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. 2000. Available at: http://people.uncw.edu/ogler/MI%20Groups%20for%20Com%20SA%20Prog.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Jacobsen LK, Southwick SM, Kosten TR. Substance use disorders in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of the literature. Am J Psychiatry. 2001; 158(8): 1184-1190. Available at: http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=174935 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Johanson CE, Arfken CL, DiMenza S, Schuster CR. Diversion and abuse of buprenorphine: Findings from national surveys of treatment patients and physicians. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2012; 120(1-30: 190-195. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21862241 Accessed on: 2012-07-19.
Johnson RE, Strain EC, Amass L. Buprenorphine: how to use it right. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003; 70(suppl 2): S59-S77. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12738351 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Jones HE, Kaltenbach K, Heil SH, Stine SM, Coyle MG, Arria AM, O'Grady KE, Selby P, Martin PR, Fischer G. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome after Methadone or Buprenorphine Exposure. New England Journal of Medicine. 2010; 363: 2320-2331. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1005359 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Jones HE. Treating opioid use disorders during pregnancy: historical, current, and future directions. Subst Abus. 2013; 34(2): 89-91. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23577898 Accessed on: 2014-02-05.
Joseph AM, Willenbring ML, Nugent SM, Nelson DB. A randomized trial of concurrent versus delayed smoking intervention for patients in alcohol dependence treatment. J Stud Alcohol. 2004; 65(6): 681-91. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15700504 Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
Kahan M, Srivastava A, Ordean A, Cirone S. Buprenorphine: new treatment of opioid addiction in primary care. Canadian Family Physician. 2011; 57(3): 281-9. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3056674/ Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Kakko J, Svanborg KD, Kreek MJ, Heilig M. 1-year retention and social function after buprenorphine-assisted relapse prevention treatment for heroin dependence in Sweden: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2003; 361(9358): 662-8. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12606177 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Kalman D, Morissette SB, George TP. Co-Morbidity of Smoking in Patients with Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Am J Addict. 2005; 14(2): 106–123. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1199553/ Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
Kaul P, Coupey SM. Clinical evaluation of substance abuse. Pediatr Rev. 2002; 23(3): 85-94. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875181 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Kidorf M, Disney ER, King VL, Neufeld K, Beilenson PL, Brooner RK. Prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders in opioid abusers in a community syringe exchange program. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004; May 10; 74(2): 115-22. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15099655 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Kissin W, McLeod C, Sonnefeld J, Stanton A. Experiences of a National Sample of Qualified Addiction Specialists Who Have and Have Not Prescribed Buprenorphine for Opioid Dependence. Journal of Addictive Diseases. 2006; 25(4): 91-103. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17088229 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Kleber H, Weiss R, Anton R, et al. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders, 2nd edition. Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 163(8): 5-82. Available at: http://www.ncps.org/Publications/misc/sub_guideline_0405.pdf
Kleber HD. Pharmacologic treatments for heroin and cocaine dependence. Am J Addict. 2003; 12(suppl 2): S5-S18. Available at: http://www.europeanneuropsychopharmacology.com/article/S0924-977X(03)00181-0/abstract Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Knight JR, Shrier LA, Bravender TD, Farrell M, Vander Bilt J, Shaffer HJ. A new brief screen for adolescent substance abuse. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 1999; 153(6): 591-596. Available at: http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/153/6/591 Accessed on: 2011-07-14.
Kosten TR, George TP. The neurobiology of opioid addiction: implications for treatment. NIDA Science and Practice Perspectives. 2002; 1(1): 13-20. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2851054/ Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Kraus ML, Alford DP, Kotz MM, et al. Statement of the American Society of Addiction Medicine Consensus Panel on the Use of Buprenorphine in Office-Based Treatment of Opioid Addiction.. Journal of Addiction Medicine . 2011; 5(4): 254-263. Available at: http://www.asam.org/docs/advocacy/use-of-buprenorphine-in-office-based-treatment-of-opioid-addiction.pdf Accessed on: 2013-12-12.
Labelle C. New Information on Buprenorphine Maintenance Treatment. Personal Communication. 2010.
Labelle C. Treating Anticipated Acute Pain. Personal Communication. 2011.
Lavonas EJ, Banner W, Bradt P, Bucher-Bartelson B, Brown KR, Rajan P, Murrelle L, Dart RC, Green JL. Root causes, clinical effects, and outcomes of unintentional exposures to buprenorphine by young children. Journal of Pediatrics. 2013; 163(5): 1377-83. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23993129 Accessed on: 2014-01-06.
Lee, JD, Grossman, E, DiRocco, D, Gourevitch, MN. Home buprenorphine/naloxone induction in primary care. J Gen Intern Med. 2009; 24(2): 226–232.
Lejeune C, Simmat-Durand L, Gourarier L, Aubisson S, Groupe d'Etudes Grossesse et Addictions (GEGA). Prospective multicenter observational study of 260 infants bornt to 259 opiate-dependent mothers on methadone or high-dose buprenorphine substitution. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2006; 82(3): 250-7. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16257138 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Lemon SC, Friedmann PD, Stein MD. The impact of smoking cessation on drug abuse treatment outcome. Addict Behav. 2003; 28(7): 1323-31. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12915172 Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
Levy S, Vaughan BL, Angulo M, Knight JR. Buprenorphine replacement therapy for adolescents with opioid dependence: early experience from a children's hospital-based outpatient treatment program. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2007; 40(5): 477-82. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17448411 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Ling W, Hillhouse , Domier C, Doraimani G, Hunter J, Thomas C, Jenkins J, Hasson A, Annon J, Saxon A, Selzer J, Boverman J, Bilangi R. Buprenorphine tapering schedule and illicit opioid use. Addiction. 2009; 104(2): 256-65. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3150159/ Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Ling W, Smith D. Buprenorphine: blending practice and research. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2002; 23(2): 87-92. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12220606 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Ling W. Prescription Drug Abuse. Presented at the Western Conference on Addiction, Universal City, CA, 11-13-05. 2005.
Lintzeris N, Clark N, Muhleisen P, et al. National Clinical Guidelines and Procedures for the Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Heroin Dependence. Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Health and Aged Care. Publication approval 2873. 2001. Available at: http://www.nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au/internet/drugstrategy/publishing.nsf/Content/buprenorphine-guide Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Lofwall MR, Havens JR. Inability to access buprenorphine treatment as a risk factor for using diverted buprenorphine. Drug Alcohol Depen. 2012; Jun 13 [Epub ahead of print]: . Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=inability%20to%20access%20buphrenorphine%20treatment%20as%20a%20risk%20factor%20for%20using%20diverted%20buprenorphine
Lundahl B, Moleni T, Burke BL, et al. Motivational interviewing in medical care settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.. Patient Educ Couns. 2013; 93(2): 157-68. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24001658 Accessed on: 2014-09-17.
Madras BK, Wilson MC, Avula D, Stegbauer T, Stein JB, Clark HW. Screening, brief interventions, referral to treatment (SBIRT) for illicit drug and alcohol use at multiple healthcare sites: Comparison at intake and six months. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010; 99(1-3): 280-295. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2760304/ Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Magnelli F, Biondi L , Calabria R, Fiore A, Peluso E, Vonella D, Rota AG. Safety and efficacy of buprenorphine/naloxone in opioid-dependent patients: an Italian observational study. Clin Drug Investig. 2010; 30(Suppl 1): 21-6. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20450242 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Mammen K, Bell J. The clinical efficacy and abuse potential of combination buprenorphine-naloxone in the treatment of opioid dependence. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009; 10(15): 2537-44. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19708849 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Manubay JM, Muchow C, Sullivan MA. Prescription drug abuse: epidemiology, regulatory issues, chronic pain management with narcotic analgesics. Prim Care. 2011; 38(1): 71-90, vi. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3328297/ Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Martin J. PCSS-MAT Guidance: Pregnancy and buprenorphine treatment. Physicians' Clinical Support System for Medication Assisted Treatment (PCSS-MAT). 2006. Available at: http://pcssmat.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/PCSS-MATGuidancePregnancy-and-Buprenorphine.Martin.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Martin J. Personal Communication re: number of patients maintained on buprenorphine. E-mail. 2011. Accessed on: 2011-03-31.
Matson SC, Hobson G, Abdel-Rasoul M, Bonny AE. A retrospective study of retention of opioid-dependent adolescents and young adults in an outpatient buprenorphine/naloxone clinic. Addict Behav. 2014; 8(3): 176-82.
Mattick RP, Kimber J, Breen C, Davoli M. Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadone maintenance for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews. CD002207. 2002; 16(2): . Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18425880 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Maxwell JC, McCance-Katz EF. Indicators of buprenorphine and methadone use and abuse: what do we know?. Am J Addict. 2010; 19(1): 73-88. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3723402/ Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
McCance-Katz EF, Moody DE, Morse GD, Ma Q, DiFrancesco R, Friedland G, Pade P, Rainey PM. Interaction between buprenorphine and atazanavir or atazanavir/ritonavir. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Science Direct. 2007; 91(2-3): 269-78. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3272856/ Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
McCance-Katz EF. Treatment of Opioid Dependence and Coinfection with HIV and Hepatitis C Virus in Opioid-Dependent Patients: The Importance of Drug Interactions between Opioids and Antiretroviral Agents. Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 41(Suppl 1): S89-95. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16265622 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
McCarthy JJ, Leamon MH, Parr MS, Anania B. High-dose maintenance in pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes. American Journal of Obstetric Gynecology. 2005; 193(3 Pt 1): 606-10. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16150249 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
McLellan AT, McKay JR. Components of successful addiction treatment. In: Graham AW, Schultz TK, Mayo-Smith MF, Ries RK, Wilford BB, eds. Principles of Addiction Medicine, Third Edition. Chevy Chase, Md: American Society of Addiction Medicine. 2003; 3: . Available at: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/principles-of-addiction-medicine-american-society-american-society-of-addiction-medicine/1015772450?ean=9781880425084 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
McNicholas LF. Buprenorphine: Induction, Dosing and Related Issues. American Psychiatric Association Sponsored Webinar. 2011. Available at: http://vimeo.com/20803777 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Mee-Lee D (ed). The ASAM Criteria. . 2013; 3rd edition: . Available at: http://www.asam.org/publications/the-asam-criteria Accessed on: 2014-09-12.
Mendelson J, Jones RT. Clinical and pharmacological evaluation of buprenorphine and naloxone combinations: why the 4:1 ratio for treatment?. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003; 70(2S): S29-S37. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12738348 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational Interviewing. Helping People Change. Applications of Motivational Interviewing Series. New York: Guilford Press. 2012; 3rd edition: . Available at: http://www.guilford.com/books/Motivational-Interviewing/Miller-Rollnick/9781609182274 Accessed on: 2014-07-08.
Minozzi S, Amato L, Davoli M. Maintenance treatments for opiate dependent adolescent . Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; 15(2): CD007210. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19370679 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Mintzer IL, Eisenberg M, Terra M, MacVane C, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S. Treating opioid addiction with buprenorphine-naloxone in community-based primary care settings. Ann Fam Med. 2007; 5(2): 146-50. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1838690/ Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Monto A, Currie S, Wright TL. Liver disease in injection drug users with hepatitis C, with and without HIV coinfection. J Addict Dis. 2008; 27(2): 49-59. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J069v27n02_06?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed#.Ula6dplDvmc Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Moore BA, Fiellin DA, Barry DT, Sullivan LE, Chawarski MC, O'Conner PG, Schottenfeld RS. Primary care office-based buprenorphine treatment: comparison of heroin and prescription opioid dependent patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2007; 22: 527-530. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1829433/ Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
Moos RH, Moos BS, Finney JW. Predictors of deterioration among patients with substance-use disorders. J Clin Psychol. 2001; 57(12): 1403-1419. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11745584 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Myrick H, Brady K. Current review of the comorbidity of affective, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2003; 16: 261-270. Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/452725 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Heroin Abuse and Addiction. NIDA. 2005. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/heroin/letter-director Accessed on: 2010-06-09.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. Linked Epidemics: Drug Abuse and HIV/AIDS. Topics in Brief. 2005. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/linked-epidemics-drug-abuse-hivaids Accessed on: 2011-04-16.
Neaigus A, Miller M, Gyarmathy VA, Friedman SR. HIV heterosexual sexual risk from injecting drug users among HIV-seronegative noninjecting heroin users. Subst Use Misuse. 2011; 46(2-3): 208-17. Available at: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10826084.2011.521473 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
NIAAA. Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much: A Clinician's Guide. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2005. Available at: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Practitioner/CliniciansGuide2005/guide.pdf Accessed on: 2011-07-13.
NIDA. Screening for drug use in general medical settings. Resource guide.. . 2012. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/resource-guide/preface Accessed on: 2014-09-19.
Nielsen S, Hillhouse M, Thomas C, Hasson A, Ling W. A Comparison of Buprenorphine Taper Outcomes Between Prescription Opioid and Heroin Users. J Addict Med. 2013; 7: 33-8. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23222095 Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
O'Connor PG, Oliveto AH, Shi JM, Triffleman EG, Carroll KM, Kosten TR, Rounsaville BJ, Pakes JA. Schottenfeld RS, A randomized trial of buprenorphine maintenance for heroin dependence in a primary care clinic for substance users versus a methadone clinic. Am J Med. 1998; 105(2): 100-105. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9727815 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). What America's users spend on illegal drugs 1988-2000. White House Drug Policy Web site. 2001. Available at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/ondcppubs/publications/pdf/american_users_spend_2002.pdf Accessed on: 2011-07-03.
Oreskovich MR, Saxon AJ, Ellis ML, Malte CA, Reoux JP, Knox PC. A double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, prospective pilot study of the partial mu opiate agonist, buprenorphine, for acute detoxification from heroin. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005; 77(1): 71-9. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15607843 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Orman JS, Keating GM. Buprenorphine/naloxone: a review of its use in the treatment of opioid dependence. Drugs. 2009; 69(5): 577-607. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19368419 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Ouimette PC, Brown PJ, Najavits LM. Course and treatment of patients with both substance use and posttraumatic stress disorders. Addict Behav. 1998; 23(6): 785-795. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9801716 Accessed on: 2014-02-18.
O’Connor AB, Collett A, Alto WA, O’Brien LM. Breastfeeding rates and the relationship between breastfeeding and neonatal abstinence syndrome in women maintained on buprenorphine during pregnancy . Journal of Midwifery Women’s Health. 2013; 58(4): 383-8. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23931660 Accessed on: 2014-06-18.
Pajusco B, Chiamulera C, Quaglio G, Moro L, Casari R, Amen G, Faccini M, Lugoboni F. Tobacco Addiction and Smoking Status in Heroin Addicts under Methadone vs. Buprenorphine Therapy. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012; 9(3): 932–942. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3367288/ Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
Pani PP, Vacca R, Troqu E, Amato L, Davoli M. Pharmacological treatment for depression during opioid agonist treatment for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010; 8(9): CD008373. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008373.pub2/abstract Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Passik S. Psychiatric and pain characteristics of prescription drug abusers entering drug rehabilitation. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy. 2006; 20(2): 5-13. Available at: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/J354v20n02_03 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Perneger TV, Klag MJ, Whelton PK. Recreational drug use: a neglected risk factor for end-stage renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001; 38(1): 49-56. Available at: http://www.ajkd.org/article/S0272-6386(01)33204-3/abstract Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Pickett M, Rogers PD, Cavanaugh RM Jr. Screening for alcohol, tobacco, and drug use in children and adolescents. In: Graham AW, Schultz TK, Mayo-Smith MF, Ries RK, Wilford BB, eds. Principles of Addiction Medicine, Third Edition. Chevy Chase, Md: American Society of Addiction Medicine. 2003. Available at: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/principles-of-addiction-medicine-american-society-american-society-of-addiction-medicine/1015772450?ean=9781880425084 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Prochaska JJ, Delucchi K, Hall SM. A meta-analysis of smoking cessation interventions with individuals in substance abuse treatment or recovery. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004; 72(6): 1144-56. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15612860 Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
Purdue Pharma. Butrans™ CIII (buprenorphine) Transdermal System. Butrans Website. 2010. Available at: http://www.butrans.com/
Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Inc. SUBOXONE (buprenorphine hydrochloride, naloxone hydrochloride) film, soluble [Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Inc] . DailyMed. 2014; April: . Available at: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/lookup.cfm?setid=8a5edcf9-828c-4f97-b671-268ab13a8ecd Accessed on: 2014-09-17.
Reid MS, Mickalian JD, Delucchi KL, Hall SM, Berger SP. An acute dose of nicotine enhances cue-induced cocaine craving. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 1998; 49(2): 95-104. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9543646/?i=2&from=/19375250/related Accessed on: 2014-02-18.
Reid MS, Selzer J, Rotrosen J. Smoking Cessation treatment at Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs. Northeast ATTC Newsletter. 2006; 5(2): 2-5. Available at: http://ctndisseminationlibrary.org/PDF/156.pdf Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
Reisfield GM, Maschke KJ. Urine drug testing in long-term opioid therapy: ethical considerations. Clinical Journal of Pain. 2013; [Epub ahead of print]: . Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24281293 Accessed on: 2014-01-02.
Renn CL, Dorsey SG. The physiology and processing of pain: a review. AACN Clin Issues. 2005; 16(3): 277-290, 413-415. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16082231 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Reuter N. Personal Communication via e-mail re: Buprenorphine Waivered Physicians. E-mail. 2011. Accessed on: 2011-04-08.
RL Hubbard , SG Craddock, J Anderson. Overview of 5-year followup outcomes in the drug abuse treatment outcome studies (DATOS). Institute for Community-Based Research, National Development and Research Institutes, Inc.. 2003. Available at: http://www.journalofsubstanceabusetreatment.com/article/S0740-5472(03)00130-2/abstract Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Robinson RC, Gatchel RJ, Polatin P, Deschner M, Noe C, Gajraj N. Screening for problematic prescription opioid use. Clin J Pain. 2001; 17(3): 220-228. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11587112 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Rollnick S, Miller WR. What is motivational interviewing?. Behav Cognitive Psychother. 1995; 23: 325-334. Available at: http://www.motivationalinterview.net/clinical/whatismi.html Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Romano G, Barbera N, Spadaro G, Valenti V. Determination of drugs of abuse in hair: evaluation of external heroin contamination and risk of false positives. Forensic Sci Int. 2003; 131(2-3): 98-102. Available at: http://www.fsijournal.org/article/S0379-0738(02)00413-9/abstract Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Rondinelli AJ, Ouellet LJ, Strathdee SA, Latka MH, Hudson SM, Garfein RS. Young adult injection drug users in the United States continue to practice HIV risk behaviors. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009; 104(1-2): 167-74. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19559543 Accessed on: 2014-02-18.
Rosengren D, Wagner CC. Motivational interviewing: shall we dance?. In: Coombs R, ed. Addiction Recovery Tools: A Practitioner's Handbook. Sage Publications. 2001. Available at: http://www.uk.sagepub.com/booksProdDesc.nav?prodId=Book9537 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Rounsaville BJ. Using motivational interviewing in routine care. Paper presented at: National Institute on Drug Abuse Conference--Blending Clinical Practice and Research. 2002. Available at: http://archives.drugabuse.gov/pdf/blending/Rounsaville.pdf
Saber-Tehrani AS, Bruce RD, Altice FL. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions and adverse consequences between psychotropic medications and pharmacotherapy for the treatment of opioid dependence. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2011; 37(1): 1-11. Available at: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/00952990.2010.540279 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Saitz R, Horton NJ, Larson MJ, Winter M, Samet JH. Primary medical care and reductions in addiction severity: a prospective cohort study. Addiction. 2005; 100(1): 70-8. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15598194 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
SAMHSA Press Office. Sharp rise in buprenorphine-related emergency department visits from 2005 to 2010. SAMHSA Bulletin. 2013. Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/newsroom/advisories/1301293122.aspx Accessed on: 2013-04-30.
SAMHSA. National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits. Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2011. 2013. Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k13/DAWN2k11ED/DAWN2k11ED.htm Accessed on: 2014-07-31.
SAMHSA. Opioid Treatment Program Directory. Medical-Assisted Treatment for Substance Use Disorders. 2011. Available at: http://dpt2.samhsa.gov/treatment/directory.aspx Accessed on: 2011-04-14.
SAMHSA. Protracted withdrawal. Substance Abuse Treatment Advisory. 2010; 9: 1. Available at: http://store.samhsa.gov/product/Protracted-Withdrawal/SMA10-4554 Accessed on: 2014-09-10.
SAMHSA. Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-44, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-4713. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012. 2012. Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k11Results/NSDUHresults2011.htm Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
SAMHSA. Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-46, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4795. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2013. Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/NationalFindings/NSDUHresults2012.htm Accessed on: 2014-07-30.
Sansone RA, Whitecar P, Wiederman MW. The prevalence of borderline personality among buprenorphine patients. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2008; 38(2): 217-26. Available at: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/23191355_The_prevalence_of_borderline_personality_among_buprenorphine_patients Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Savage SD, Kirsh KL, Passik, SD. Challenges in using opioids to treat pain in persons with substance use disorders. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice. 2008. Available at: http://archives.drugabuse.gov/pdf/ascp/vol4no2/Challenges.pdf Accessed on: 2011-04-15.
Schoener EP, Hopper JA, Pierre JD. Injection drug use in North America. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2002; 16(3): 535-551. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12371114 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Schulz JE, Parran T Jr. Principles of identification and intervention. In: Graham AW, Schultz TK, eds. Principles of Addiction Medicine, Second Edition. Chevy Chase, Md: American Society of Addiction Medicine. 1998. Available at: http://www.asam.org/publications/principles-of-addiction-medicine Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Seeff LB. 2672. Hepatology. 2002. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1053/jhep.2002.36806/abstract Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Sees KL, Clark HW. When to begin smoking cessation in substance abusers. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1993; 10(2): 189-95. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8510193 Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
Shoptaw S, Rotheram-Fuller E, Yang X, Frosch D, Nahom D, Jarvik ME, Rawson RA, Ling W. Smoking cessation in methadone maintenance. Addiction. 2002; 97(10): 1317-28. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12359036 Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
Smith PC, Schmidt SM, Allensworth-Davies D, Saitz R. A single-question screening test for drug use in primary care. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2010; 170(13): 1155-60. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2911954/ Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Stanhope TJ, Gill LA, Rose C. Chronic opioid use during pregnancy: maternal and fetal implications. Clinics in Perinatology. 2013; 40(3): 337-50. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23972743 Accessed on: 2014-06-18.
Stanton A, Mcleod C, Luckey B, Kissin W, Sonnefeld LJ. SAMHSA/CSAT Evaluation of the Buprenorphine Waiver Program. Paper presented at: 37th Annual Medical- Scientific Conference of the American Society of Addiction Medicine. 2006. Available at: http://buprenorphine.samhsa.gov/FOR_FINAL_summaryreport_colorized.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Stephenson DK, SAM Committee on Treatment of Opioid Dependence. Draft Guidelines for Physicians Working in California Opioid Treatment Programs. California Society of Addiction Medicine. 2008. Available at: http://www.csam-asam.org/guideline-physicians-working-california-opioid-treatment-programs Accessed on: 2013-12-18.
Sterling S, Chi F, Hinman A. Integrating Care for People With Co­-Occurring Alcohol and Other Drug, Medical, and Mental Health Conditions . Alcohol Research & Health. 2011; 33(4): 338-349. Available at: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh334/338-349.pdf Accessed on: 2014-01-07.
Stewart DG, Brown SA. Withdrawal and dependency symptoms among adolescent alcohol and drug abusers. Addiction. 1995; 90(5): 627-635. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7795499 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Stinson FS, Grant BF, Dawson DA, Ruan WJ, Huang B, Saha T. Comorbidity between DSM-IV alcohol and specific drug use disorders in the United States: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005; 80(1): 105-16. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16157233 Accessed on: 2014-01-07.
Strain EC, Moody DE, Stoller KE, Walsh SL, Bigelow GE. Relative bioavailability of different buprenorphine formulations under chronic dosing conditions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2004; 74(1): 37-43. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15072805 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Subramaniam G, Levy S. PCSS-MAT Guidance: Treatment of opioid dependent adolescents and young adults using sublingual buprenorphine. Physicians' Clinical Support System for Medication Assisted Treatment (PCSS-MAT). 2010. Available at: http://pcssmat.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/PCSS-MATGuidanceTreatmentofOpioidDependantAdolescent-buprenorphine.SubramaniamLevy1.pdf Accessed on: 2014-02-18.
Subramaniam GA, Fishman MJ, Woody G. Treatment of opioid-dependent adolescents and young adults with buprenorphine. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2009; 11(5): 360-3. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19785976 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT). A Guide to Substance Abuse Services for Primary Care Clinicians. Rockville, Md: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2008. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64827/ Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). About Buprenorphine Therapy. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2011. Available at: http://buprenorphine.samhsa.gov/about.html
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opioid Addiction. Rockville, Md: Center For Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol Series, No. 40, USDHHS Publication (SMA) 04-3939. 2004b. Available at: http://buprenorphine.samhsa.gov/Bup_Guidelines.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Tobacco Use Cessation During Substance Abuse Treatment Counseling. SAMHSA Adivsory. 2011; 10(2): 1-8. Available at: http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA11-4636CLIN/SMA11-4636CLIN.pdf Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Use of Buprenorphine in the Pharmacologic Management of Opioid Dependence: A Curriculum for Physicians. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2001. Available at: http://www.buprenorphine.samhsa.gov/Buprenorphine_Curriculum.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Confidentiality of Patient Records for Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment. Rockville, Md: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Technical Assistance Publication Series, No. 13. 1994a. Available at: http://adaiclearinghouse.org/downloads/TAP-13-Confidentiality-of-Patient-Records-for-Alcohol-and-Other-Drug-Treatment-103.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Intensive Outpatient Treatment for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Rockville, Md: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Technical Improvement Protocol Series, No. 8. 1993b. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22514865 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse: Opportunities for Coordination. Rockville, Md: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Technical Assistance Publication Series, No. 11. 1994b. Available at: https://secure.addictioncounselorce.com/articles/102015/TAP-11-Treatment-for-Alcohol-and-Other-Drug-Abuse-Opportunities-for-Coordination-101-1-.pdf Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Drug Abuse Warning Network. National estimates of drug-related emergency department visits . Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration website. 2004-2009. Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/DAWN.aspx#Dawn Accessed on: 2012-07-19.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. New federal regulations issued to improve methadone treatment. NIH. 2001. Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/news/newsreleases/010117nrmeth.htm
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Treatment of Adolescents With Substance Use Disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol Series, No. 32. Rockville, Md: Center For Substance Abuse Treatment. USDHHS Publication (SMA) 99-3283. 1999. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64350/ Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Sulis CA. HIV, TB, and other infectious diseases related to alcohol and other drug use. In: Graham AW, Schultz TK, Mayo-Smith MF, Ries RK, Wilford BB, eds. Principles of Addiction Medicine, Third Edition. Chevy Chase, Md: American Society of Addiction Medicine. 2003. Available at: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/principles-of-addiction-medicine-american-society-american-society-of-addiction-medicine/1015772450?ean=9781880425084 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Sullivan LE, Chawarski M, O'Connor PG, Schottenfeld RS. Fiellin DA, The practice of office-based buprenorphine treatment of opioid dependence: is it associated with new patients entering into treatment?. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005; Jul; 29(1): 113-116.
Sullivan MA, Covey LS. Current perspectives on smoking cessation among substance abusers. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2002; 4(5): 388-396. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12230968 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Sullivan, L, Fiellin, D. Narrative Review: Buprenorphine for Opioid-Dependent Patients in Office Practice. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2008; 148(9): 662-670.
Sullivan, M, Martin J (original author). New Information on Buprenorphine Treatment During Pregnancy. Personal Communication. 2014. Available at: http://pcssmat.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/PCSS-MATGuidancePregnancy-and-Buprenorphine.Martin.pdf Accessed on: 2014-10-14.
Tamm L, Trello-Rishel K, Riggs P, Nakonezny P, Acosta M, Bailey G, Winhusen T. Predictors of treatment response in adolescents with comorbid substance use disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Subst Abuse Treat. 2013; 44(2): 224-30. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3499678/ Accessed on: 2014-09-26.
Taylor DA. Fleming WW, Unifying perspective of the mechanisms underlying the development of tolerance and physical dependence to opioids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001; 297(1): 11-18. Available at: http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/297/1/11 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Thomas CP, Fullerton CA, Kim M, Montejano L, Lyman DR, Dougherty RH, Daniels AS, Ghose SS, Delphin-Rittmon ME. Medication-assisted treatment with buprenorphine: assessing the evidence. Psychiatr Serv. 2014; 65(2): 158-70. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24247147 Accessed on: 2014-06-18.
Trachtenberg AI, Fleming MF. Diagnosis and Treatment of Drug Abuse in Family Practice. American Family Physician monograph. National Institute on Drug Abuse. American Academy of Family Physicians. 1994. Available at: http://archives.drugabuse.gov/diagnosis-treatment/diagnosis.html Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
Trémeau F, Darreye A, Staner L, Corrêa H, Weibel H, Khidichian F, Macher JP. Suicidality in opioid-dependent subjects. Am J Addict. 2008; 17(3): 187-94. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18463995 Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Tzschentke TM. Behavioral pharmacology of buprenorphine, with a focus on preclinical models of reward and addiction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002; 161(1): 1-16. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11967625 Accessed on: 2013-10-08.
U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Office of Diversion Control. National Forensic Laboratory Information System: Year 2009 Annual Report. National Forensic Library Information System Annual Report. 2010. Available at: http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/nflis/2009annual_rpt.pdf Accessed on: 2011-04-14.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force banner U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Illicit Drug Use . . 2008; January: . Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsdrug.htm Accessed on: 2014-09-19.
United States Congress. Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000. United States Congress. 2000. Available at: http://buprenorphine.samhsa.gov/fulllaw.html Accessed on: 2011-06-29.
Verheul R, Kranzler HR, Poling J, Tennen H, Ball S, Rounsaville BJ. Co-occurrence of Axis I and Axis II disorders in substance abusers. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000; 101(2): 110-118. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1034/j.1600-0447.2000.90050.x/abstract Accessed on: 2013-10-10.
Verheul R. Co-morbidity of personality disorders in individuals with substance use disorders. Eur Psychiatry. 2001; 16(5): 274-282. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11514129 Accessed on: 2014-02-18.
Vignau J, Duhamel A, Catteau J, et al. Practice-based buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT): how do French healthcare providers manage the opiate-addicted patients?. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2001; 21(3): 135-144.
Wagner C, Conners W. Interaction techniques. Mid-Atlantic Addiction Technology Transfer Center. 2003c. Available at: http://www.ourdailybreadmissions.org/Philosophy%20of%20MI.htm
Waknine Y. FDA Approves 7-Day Buprenorphine Pain Patch. Medscape Today. 2010. Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/724626 Accessed on: 2011-07-13.
Walsh SL. Clinically Relevant Pharmacology of Buprenorphine. UK HealthCare CECentral. 2009. Available at: http://www.cecentral.com/activity/2075 Accessed on: 2011-07-18.
Wang J, Christo PJ. The influence of prescription monitoring programs on chronic pain management. Pain Physician. 2009; 12: 507-515. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19461820 Accessed on: 2014-05-24.
Warden D, Riggs P, Min S, Mikulich-Gilbertson S, Tamm L, Trello-Rishel K, Winhusen T. Major depression and treatment response in adolescents with ADHD and substance use disorder. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012; 120(1-3): 214-9. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3245790/ Accessed on: 2014-09-26.
Warner EA. Laboratory diagnosis. In: Graham AW, Schultz TK, Mayo-Smith MF, Ries RK, Wilford BB, eds. Principles of Addiction Medicine, Third Edition. Chevy Chase, Md: American Society of Addiction Medicine. 2003. Available at: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/principles-of-addiction-medicine-american-society-american-society-of-addiction-medicine/1015772450?ean=9781880425084 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.
Warner M, Chen LH, Makuc DM. Increase in fatal poisonings involving opioid analgesics in the United States, 1999-2006. National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief. 2009; NCHS Data Brief, no. 22: . Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db22.pdf Accessed on: 2011-04-15.
Weiss RD, Potter JS, Fiellin DA, Byrne M, Connery HS, Dickinson W, Gardin J, Griffin ML, Gourevitch MN, Haller DL, Hasson HL, Huang Z, Jacobs P, Kosinski AS, Lindblad R, McCance-Katz EF, Provost SE, Selzer J, Somoza EC, Sonne SC, Ling W. Adjunctive Counseling During Brief and Extended Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment for Prescription Opioid Dependence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012; 68(12): 1238-1246. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3470422/ Accessed on: 2014-01-08.
Weiss RD. Information from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study. The American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting. 2010; Symposium 36, presentation 4.
Wish ED, Artigiani D, Billing A, Hauser W, et al. The emerging buprenorphine epidemic in the United States. J Addict Dis. 2012; 31(1): 3-7. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22356664 Accessed on: 2012-07-19.
Woody G, Poole S, Subramaniam G, Dugosh K, Bogenshutz M, Abbot P, Patkar A, Publicker M, McCain K, Potter J, Forman R, Vetter V, McNicholas L, Blaine J, Lynch K, Fudala P. Extended vs short-term buprenorphine-naloxone for treatment of opioid-addicted youth: a randomized trail. AMA. 2008; 300(17): 2003-11. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2610690/ Accessed on: 2014-09-26.
Wu LT, Woody GE, Yang C, Blazer DG. Subtypes of nonmedical opioid users: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010; 112: 69–80. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2967592/ Accessed on: 2014-02-18.
Xi ZX, Stein EA. GABAergic mechanisms of opiate reinforcement. Alcohol Alcohol. 2002; 37(5): 485-494. Available at: http://alcalc.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/5/485 Accessed on: 2014-08-25.
Zacny J, Bigelow G, Compton P, Foley K, Iguchi M, Sannerud C. College on Problems of Drug Dependence task force on prescription opioid non-medical use and abuse: position statement. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003; 69(3): 215-232. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12633908 Accessed on: 2013-10-09.