Buprenorphine Treatment for Hospitalized, Opioid-Dependent Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Aug 1;174(8):1369-1376
Authors: Liebschutz JM, Crooks D, Herman D, Anderson B, Tsui J, Meshesha LZ, Dossabhoy S, Stein M
Importance: Buprenorphine opioid agonist treatment (OAT) has established efficacy for treating opioid dependency among persons seeking addiction treatment. However, effectiveness for out-of-treatment, hospitalized patients is not known.
Objective: To determine whether buprenorphine administration during medical hospitalization and linkage to office-based buprenorphine OAT after discharge increase entry into office-based OAT, increase sustained engagement in OAT, and decrease illicit opioid use at 6 months after hospitalization.
Design, Setting, and Participants: From August 1, 2009, through October 31, 2012, a total of 663 hospitalized, opioid-dependent patients in a general medical hospital were identified. Of these, 369 did not meet eligibility criteria. A total of 145 eligible patients consented to participation in the randomized clinical trial. Of these, 139 completed the baseline interview and were assigned to the detoxification (n = 67) or linkage (n = 72) group.
Interventions: Five-day buprenorphine detoxification protocol or buprenorphine induction, intrahospital dose stabilization, and postdischarge transition to maintenance buprenorphine OAT affiliated with the hospital's primary care clinic (linkage).
Main Outcomes and Measures: Entry and sustained engagement with buprenorphine OAT at 1, 3, and 6 months (medical record verified) and prior 30-day use of illicit opioids (self-report).
Results: During follow-up, linkage participants were more likely to enter buprenorphine OAT than those in the detoxification group (52 [72.2%] vs 8 [11.9%], P < .001). At 6 months, 12 linkage participants (16.7%) and 2 detoxification participants (3.0%) were receiving buprenorphine OAT (P = .007). Compared with those in the detoxification group, participants randomized to the linkage group reported less illicit opioid use in the 30 days before the 6-month interview (incidence rate ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46-0.73; P < .01) in an intent-to-treat analysis.
Conclusions and Relevance: Compared with an inpatient detoxification protocol, initiation of and linkage to buprenorphine treatment is an effective means for engaging medically hospitalized patients who are not seeking addiction treatment and reduces illicit opioid use 6 months after hospitalization. However, maintaining engagement in treatment remains a challenge.
Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00987961.
PMID: 25090173 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Adding an Internet-Delivered Treatment to an Efficacious Treatment Package for Opioid Dependence.
J Consult Clin Psychol. 2014 Aug 4;
Authors: Christensen DR, Landes RD, Jackson L, Marsch LA, Mancino MJ, Chopra MP, Bickel WK
Objective: To examine the benefit of adding an Internet-delivered behavior therapy to a buprenorphine medication program and voucher-based motivational incentives. Method: A block-randomized, unblinded, parallel, 12-week treatment trial was conducted with 170 opioid-dependent adult patients (mean age = 34.3 years; 54.1% male; 95.3% White). Participants received an Internet-based community reinforcement approach intervention plus contingency management (CRA+) and buprenorphine or contingency management alone (CM-alone) plus buprenorphine. The primary outcomes, measured over the course of treatment, were longest continuous abstinence, total abstinence, and days retained in treatment. Results: Compared to those receiving CM-alone, CRA+ recipients exhibited, on average, 9.7 total days more of abstinence (95% confidence interval [CI = 2.3, 17.2]) and had a reduced hazard of dropping out of treatment (hazard ratio = 0.47; 95% CI [0.26, 0.85]). Prior treatment for opioid dependence significantly moderated the additional improvement of CRA+ for longest continuous days of abstinence. Conclusions: These results provide further evidence that an Internet-based CRA+ treatment is efficacious and adds clinical benefits to a contingency management/medication based program for opioid dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
PMID: 25090043 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The Anti-Suicidal Potential of Buprenorphine: A Case Report.
Int J Psychiatry Med. 2014 Jan 1;47(2):169-174
Authors: Striebel JM, Kalapatapu RK
The very strong relationship between suicide, depressive disorders, and substance use disorders is well recognized. Certain pain syndromes are significantly associated with suicide, irrespective of co-occurring medical or psychiatric diagnosis. Chronic pain, depression, substance use disorders, and suicide appear to involve overlapping neural pathways and brain regions that function in the processing of emotional and physical pain, as well as maintaining reward and anti-reward circuitry. In this article, we employ a clinical case to illustrate how various stressors disrupted the balance between pain and opioid-facilitated analgesia. This disruption resulted in excessive use of short-acting opioids to treat pain with ensuing allostatic overload and culmination in chronic suicidal ideation with a suicide attempt. Sublingual buprenorphine was selected to treat the opioid use disorder. We propose that the unique pharmacodynamics of this drug served to stabilize dysregulated neural circuits, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides, allowing the mitigation of pain, assuaging opioid cravings, easing depression, and resolving suicidal ideation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe the possible anti-suicidal effect of sublingual buprenorphine.
PMID: 25084802 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]